Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D.C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006).  The LENS neurofeedback with animals.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104.

Hammond, D.C. (2012). Neurofeedback treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:2, 155-163.

Cripe, C. (2007). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neuro-developmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy 10(2-3), 79-87.

Miller, J.A. (2013). Neurotherapy for sustainable addiction recovery: An integrated model. Paper presented at the annual International Society of Neurofeedback and Research Conference, Dallas, TX.

Evans, J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics and Clinical Applications. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Medical Press.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Nelson, D.V., et al. (1998). Disinhibition in the gamma motorneuron circuitry: a neglected mechanism for understanding myofascial pain syndromes. Applied Physiology & Biofeedback, 23, 43-58.

How effective is the LENS?

It is acknowledged that this is a new form of treatment and the number of randomly controlled outcome studies is still limited; however, clinical experience in the USA, Australia, Canada, Germany and Mexico has shown positive outcomes and some research studies have already been conducted. For some preliminary research studies, see:

  • Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006). The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Canter, New York. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78.

  • Hammond, D.C., Editor (2007). LENS; The Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghamptom, NY, The Hawthorne Medical Press.

  • Mueller, H.H., Donaldson, C.C.S., Nelson, D.V. & Layman, M. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: a clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952.

  • Schoenberger, N.E., Shiflett, S.C., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L. & Matheis, R.J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherpay system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.

Although there are many studies and references to the LENS here are three books that collectively offer a comprehensive overview of the LENS.

Dr. Stephen Larsen is a early adapter of the LENS. This anecdotal account of a broad cross-section of patients offers fascinating insight into this powerful form of neurofeedback.

The Healing Power of Neurofeedback

Dr. Corydon Hammond, editor of the Journal of Neurofeedback examines the research, developmental, and clinical applications of the LENS.

LENS: The Low Energy Neurofeedback System

A guide to neurofeedback for better physical and mental health as well as greater emotional balance, cognitive agility, and creativity. Also by Dr. Stephan Larsen.

The Neurofeedback Solution

Further controlled research studies are anticipated. You can also find more information at

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